Simple liars, damned liars, and experts.

By Kent R. Kroeger (September 11, 2022)

Statisticians are trained on Day 1 that errors are an inherent part of understanding the world (Graphic by Jake2042 (Used under CCA-Share Alike 4.0 International license.)

I’ve written elsewhere about lying. And readers have openly disputed my view on the issue. “Speaking ignorance is a type of lying,” wrote one reader.

No, it is not. Spreading ignorance is what communications researchers call misinformation, which is distinguishable from disinformation, which is the deliberate promulgation of…



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Kent Kroeger

I am a survey and statistical consultant with over 30 -years experience measuring and analyzing public opinion (You can contact me at: